Abu ‘Ubayd, Al-Qasim ibn Salaam, narrated:

There were people from among the people of the Covenant, in the Mountain of Lebanon, who initiated a matter. The governor of Al-Shaam (Levant) at the time was Saleh ibn Ali – the uncle of Abu Ja’far Al-Mansour- so he fought them and exiled them altogether from their homes.

So al-Imam Al-Awzaai wrote to him a long letter, and from what he said in it was:

“After which,

[It has reached us that] from among those who were exiled from the People of Dhimmah, of the Mountain of Lebanon, were those who did not assist nor agree with those who rebelled from among them. Neither was this matter one which they agreed on altogether.

[From those who initiated this matter was] a group who were killed, while the others returned back to their villages.

So how can you punish the general population because of the actions of a few, and expel them altogether from their homes and wealth?!

Indeed it has reached us that from the Decrees of Allah –Exalted is He- is that: He does not take (or punish) the general for the deeds (or actions) of a few, but rather He may take the few for the actions of the general, and would then resurrect them all upon their actions (and intentions).

Verily, the best matter which you should follow and stop at is the Ruling of Allah Exalted and Glorified is He.

And the best Will and Advice which you should uphold is that of the Messenger of Allah (Blessings and Peace of Allah upon him) where he said:

“If anyone wrongs a person of covenant, [or diminishes his right,] or forces him to work beyond his capacity, [or takes from him anything without his consent,] then I shall contend against him on the Day of Judgment”.

And indeed whoever was given sanctity over his blood, then he shall have over his wealth too, and [should be treated] with justice likewise, for indeed these people are not your slaves so that you may have the freedom to move them from one land to another as you wish, rather they are free men from the People of Dhimmah [1] …”


[1] Adopted from: Al-Amwaal by Al-Qassim ibn Salaam p. 183

قال القاسم بن سلام: وقد كان نحو من هذا قريبا الآن في دهر الأوزاعي بموضع بالشام ، يقال له : جبل اللبنان ، وكان به ناس من أهل العهد فأحدثوا حدثا ، وعلى الشام يومئذ صالح بن علي ، فحاربهم وأجلاهم فكتب إليه الأوزاعي ، فيما ذكر لنا محمد بن كثير عنه ، برسالة طويلة ، فيها : قد كان من إجلاء أهل الذمة ، من أهل جبل لبنان ، مما لم يكن تمالأ عليه خروج من خرج منهم ، ولم تطبق عليه جماعتهم ، فقتل منهم طائفة ، ورجع بقيتهم إلى قراهم ، فكيف تؤخذ عامة بعمل خاصة ؟ فيخرجون من ديارهم وأموالهم ؟ وقد بلغنا أن من حكم الله عز وجل أنه لا يأخذ العامة بعمل الخاصة ، ولكن يأخذ الخاصة بعمل العامة ، ثم يبعثهم على أعمالهم ، فأحق ما اقتدي به ووقف عليه حكم الله تبارك وتعالى ، وأحق الوصايا بأن تحفظ وصية رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وقوله : من ظلم معاهدا أو كلفه فوق طاقته فأنا حجيجه ، من كانت له حرمة في دمه فله في ماله والعدل عليه مثلها فإنهم ليسوا بعبيد فتكونوا من تحويلهم من بلد إلى بلد في سعة ، ولكنهم أحرار أهل ذمة.ـ

Letter Al-Awzaai