Edward Gibbon writes in ‘The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire’:

“Under the last of the Ommiades [1], the Arabian empire extended two hundred days’ journey from east to west, from the confines of Tartary and India to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean. And if we retrench the sleeve of the robe, as it is styled by their writers, the long and narrow province of march of a caravan. We should vainly seek the indissoluble union and easy obedience that pervaded the government of Augustus and the Antonines; but the progress of Islam diffused over this ample space a general resemblance of manners and opinions. The language and laws of the Qur’an were studied with equal devotion at Samarcand and Seville: the Moor and the Indian embraced as countrymen and brothers in the pilgrimage of Mecca; and the Arabian language] was adopted as the popular idiom in all the provinces to the westward of the Tigris” [2-4].


[1] The Umayyads

[2] ‘The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire’ p. 971

[3] The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a non-fiction history book written by English historian Edward Gibbon and published in six volumes. Volume I was published in 1776, and went through six printings.

[4] Online Book, alternative links